Info-Ops 2

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Info-Ops 2 (2020)

Info-Ops 2 is a book written by Daniel Markham in 2019. Its goal is to help technology creators understand and interact with technology better in order to build better projects. It achieves that goal by explaining the difference between the way humans and machines reason and think, then using that basis to develop better coding and deployment practices.

Pitch deck from an early Info_ops 2 planning session


In 2017, after the first Info-Ops book was published, many readers wanted a follow-up with a specific focus on programming. Info-Ops 2 continues with the general them of the first book: good technology creation is a matter of good information management regardless of rituals, tools, process, or tricks used to actually create the technology. (In fact, all of these things can be judged against Info-Ops to gauge both fitness, appropriateness, and quality-of-implementation)

Perice's Model of Semiotics is preferred over later ones


Humans creating technology are one of many examples of human language interacting with mathematics. By understanding the difference between the way humans reason and computers reason, we can gain immediate practical insight in becoming a better programmer/technology creator.

  • Math and its children, specifically programming, are dyadic
  • Humans and all things related to humanity are triadic
  • Creating technology by necessity involves creating a bridge between dyadic and triadic systems
  • These systems we create are used to explore the universe around us
  • Creating and managing good dyadic systems involves engineering for complexity
  • Creating and managing good triadic systems involves engineering for shared meaning
  • Dyadic concepts and tools are useful for reasoning about triadic systems
  • Triadic concepts and tools are useful for reasoning about dyadic systems

Programming Concepts Introduced

The combination of semiotics and category theory creates a model for professional learning


Although Info-Ops 2 received good reviews from all of the beta readers, and it is [available for purchase online], there is no planned release of a hardcover book of marketing/sales effort. Markham has said that his primary goal with the book is to limit purchase to readers who are both interested and motivated, not sales.

Code samples are provided in F#, Java, C#, BASH, and C++


There is a channel where ideas from the book are presented in video format. Some of this material is subscription-only, but much of it is available for free.